Hemp is a plant cultivated in France for its numerous assets. The different parts of this plant are used in several industries for different purposes. To exploit the different parts of the plant, it undergoes a transformation since its cultivation following well-defined stages. The cultivation of hemp is done during the spring, and it lasts only 3 months before the plants are pulled up. The transformation of hemp begins with the retting which is an essential step to obtain a quality and durable product.
The retting is the first step in the transformation of hemp, this step is done naturally in the field under the effect of the natural elements. Once the plant has been pulled out, it is placed on the ground at the place of harvest, and then the alternation of rain, dew, and sunlight promote a successful retting. The retting contributes to the elimination of pectin’s. The retting process lasts an average of 21 to 28 days, and once the plant is wet, the straws are packed to be transported to the defibration or scutching.
The defibration or scutching is a step that consists in mechanically separating the fiber from the chenes (wood) and the chenes (seed). Once this step is completed, the fiber is combed to eliminate impurities and remove short fibers. After the scutching, the fibers and the chenescots take directions adapted to their uses, according to the need the fibers destined to other industries are bought and treated to be used. Both discs and fibers used for textile are sent to spinning.
The spinning consists of transforming the fibers into yarns. Depending on the demand and use of the yarns, spinning is done differently; fine and thick yarns are obtained.
After spinning, the yarns are wound into bobbins and transported to weaving or knitting mills. Weaving consists of interlacing the threads vertically and horizontally, while knitting is done by following the knotted loops between them.
Hemp fabric is a healthy material, it is antibacterial and thermoregulatory. Thanks to its fiber which is resistant, this material is durable, of good quality and is biodegradable. Like linen, hemp fabric also becomes softer after several washes. This fabric is also used to make linens and bags.
Hemp rope is used extensively in ships, as rope and sails. Resistant and soft to the touch, it is found in museums, stair railings and some use it in decoration.